Blog - 3D Modeling

3D Modeling

3D modeling is the “process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of object… via specialized software.”1 The process of 3D modeling and the cost of 3D modeling software are not easy to cope up with.2 Dedicated programs or application components are used in creating 3D models, and sometimes scene descriptions languages are involved. At other times, modeling is merely a part of a creation process.1 And the “most powerful tool” is our imagination.5 3D models are seen everywhere: in movies, in product designs, in advertisements, etc, but this does not mean that they are easily created.2 Creating 3D models is not as easy as creating 2D ones.5 3D models are “objects that are constructed on three planes.”2 They are composed of points connected by geometric entities. Examples of geometric entities are triangles, lines, curved surfaces, etc. There are two ways to create models: automatic and manual (which is similar to sculpting). They are made by hand, algorithmically, or scanned.1

3D computer graphics are “programs used to create 3D computer-generated imagery.” Some of these programs are specifically developed for certain objects only, such as chemical compounds or internal organs, and for certain processes only, such as skeletal animation.1,3 Users of 3D computer graphics interact with each other in forums to share their ideas. They share some tips and tricks on how to use graphics software. For example, three or more designers can collaborate on a project. A sub-forum is a “great place to share your experiences and do your Q&A with other users.” Groups are “starting points for discussions and collaborations.”5

Tessellation is the “process of transforming representations of objects, such as the middle point coordinate of a sphere and a point on its circumference into a polygon representation of a sphere.” This is used in breaking down primitives (spheres, cones, etc) to meshes (interconnected triangles). Lighting is an “important aspect of scene setup” and a “significant contributing factor to the resulting aesthetic and visual quality of the finished work.”1

The following are the three basic phases of the process of creating 3D graphics:2

  1. 3D modeling
  2. 3D animation
  3. 3D rendering

 

Majority of solid models belongs to one of the following categories:1

  • Solid
  • Shell/Boundary

 

Solid models are realistic models that are hard to build. They have uses in non-visual simulations and in visual applications. Examples of non-visual simulations are medical and engineering simulations. Examples of visual applications are ray tracing and constructive solid geometry. Compared to solid models, shell/boundary models are easier to deal with. The exteriors of these objects define their boundaries. For instance, the focus of a shell/boundary model is its surface and its boundaries but not its volume.1

The following are digital approximations that are required to be used for nonfinite surfaces:1

  • Polygonal meshes
  • Point-based representations
  • Level sets

 

Polygonal meshes are the “most common representation.” However, point-based representations are now gaining popularity. Level sets are a “useful representation for deforming surfaces which undergo many topological changes.” An example of these surfaces is fluids.1

The following are popular ways to represent models:1

  • Polygonal modeling
  • NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) modeling
  • Splines and patches modeling
  • Primitives modeling
  • Sculpt modeling

 

The flexibility and ease of rendering have caused users to create a lot of models using polygonal modeling. NURBS modeling and splines and patches modeling are similar with each other in terms of their dependence to curved lines in defining visible surfaces. But if it is based on flexibility and ease of use, splines and patches modeling falls between the first two: polygonal modeling and NURBS modeling. Primitives modeling is more suitable to use in technical applications that does not have much organic shapes. It provides the following benefits: quick and easy construction, mathematically defined and absolutely precise forms, and simpler definition language. Geometric primitives serve as the building block of its models. Examples of these primitives are balls, cylinders, cones, etc.1

There are two types of sculpt modeling:1

  • Displacement
  • Volumetric

 

Both of them allow a very artistic exploration of the model. However, the former is more popular than the latter.1

Some modeling techniques are the following:1

  • Constructive solid geometry
  • Implicit surfaces
  • Subdivision surfaces

 

3D modeling has advantages over 2D methods. These are the following:1

  • Flexibility
  • Ease of rendering
  • Accurate photorealism

 

Flexibility is the “ability to change angles or animate images with quicker rendering of the changes.” Ease of rendering results from an automatic calculation and rendering, and mental visualization and estimation. Accurate photorealism is marked by minimized human errors in applying visual effects. However, sometimes it is difficult to achieve certain photorealistic effect. This is one disadvantage of 3D modeling.1



1“3D modeling.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 16 Aug 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_modeling>.
2Kay. “25 (Free) 3D Modeling Applications You Should Not Miss.” Online posting. 14 Aug 2010. Hongkiat.com. 16 Aug 2010 <http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/25-free-3d-modelling-applications-you-should-not-miss/>.
3“3D computer graphics software.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 16 Aug 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_computer_graphics_software>.
4“Free Noncommercial 3D ‘Three-Dimensional’ Model Library.” Artist 3D. 13 July 2010. 23 Aug 2010 <http://artist-3d.com/>.
5Saikat Basu. “Easily Learn 3D Modeling with 3DVIA Shape.” Online posting. 15 June 2010. MakeUseOf. 23 Aug 2010 <http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/3d-modeling-skills-easy-3dvia-shape/>.

Blog - 3D Modeling

3D Modeling, Drafting, Product Design, Pro/ENGINEER, SolidWorks

Definition of Terms

3D Modeling, Drafting, Product Design, Pro/ENGINEER, SolidWorks

2D drawing

- An indirect and incomplete representation of an engineering product or system, subject to interpretation and error1
3D
- A real object or true depiction of real image1
3D computer graphics
- Graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data… that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images3
3D computer graphics software
- Programs used to create 3D computer-generated imagery9
3D model
- The product of 3D modeling2
- An object that is constructed on three planes27
3D modeling
- The process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of object… via specialized software2
- The construction, manipulation, and storage of geometric objects to represent objects… around us or virtual objects17
3D printing
- A form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by successive layers of material6
3D rendering
- The 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images with 3D photorealistic effects on a computer5
3D wireframe
- Extension of 2D drafting12
Assembly modeling
- Technology and methods used by Computer-aided design and Product visualization computer software systems to handle multiple files that represent components within a product15
Computer-aided design (CAD)
- The use of computer technology for the design of objects, real or virtual12
- A combination of both hardware & software that helps architects, engineers and related professionals in the real estate & manufacturing industry worldwide18
- An important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more12
- A major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry12
- Especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle12
- One of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question12
- One part of the whole Digital Product Development (DPD) activity within the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) process12
Computer-aided geometric design (CAGD)
- The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular12
Computer animation or CGI animation
- The art of creating moving images with the use of computers10
- An artful blend of creative vision and technology31
Design intent
- How the creator of the part wants it to respond to changes and updates4
DWGgateway
- A free data translation tool that enables any AutoCAD software user to open and edit any DWG file, regardless of the version of AutoCAD it was made in4
eDrawings Professional
- An e-mail-enabled communication tool for reviewing 2D and 3D product design data across the extended product development team4
Electronic design automation (EDA or ECAD)
- A category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as printed circuit boards and integrated circuits26
Features
- Building blocks of the part4
- The shapes and operations that construct the part4
FeatureWorks
- Feature recognition software that lets designers make changes to static geometric data, increasing the value of translated files4
Flexibility
- The ability to change angles or animate images with quicker rendering of the changes2
Group
- A starting point for discussions and collaborations28
Innovation
- A vital ingredient of business success29
Interoperability
- The key issue which integrates various CAD CAM CAE tools1
Kinetic design
- Aesthetic design of physical movement32
Level sets
- A useful representation for deforming surfaces which undergo many topological changes2
Lighting
- An important aspect of scene setup2
MACRO (merge and correlate recorded output)
- Anything more than a single command19
- Rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence should be mapped to an output sequence according to a defined procedure20
Macro program
- Computer programs that capture the user’s actions as if it is recording the user21
MoldflowXpress
- A mold design validation tool that was built into a solid modeling environment4
Parameters
- Constraints whose values determine the shape or geometry of the model or assembly4
Polygonal modeling
- An approach for modeling objects by representing or approximating their surfaces using polygons8
Print3D
- A 3D printing feature that allows users to convert their 3D CAD model to a .STL file and then have it sent to specialty manufacturers for quote4
Procedural modeling
- An umbrella term for a number of techniques in computer graphics to create 3D models and textures from sets of rules7
Product design
- The efficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products30
Pro/ENGINEER
- A parametric, integrated 3D CAD/CAM/CAE solution created by Parametric Technology Corporation13
- The first to market with parametric, feature-based, associative solid modeling software13
- An integral part of a broader product development system developed by PTC13
- A piece of software that falls within the category of CAD/CAM/CAE and site alongside other similar products currently on the market13
- A feature based modeling architecture incorporated into a single database philosophy with advanced rule based design capabilities13
Skeletal animation
- A technique in computer animation, particularly in the animation of vertebrates, in which a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character… and a hierarchical set of bones used for animation only11
Solid modeling
- A consistent set of principles for mathematical and computer modeling of three dimensional solids14
SolidWorks
- A 3D mechanical CAD… program that runs on Microsoft Windows and was developed by Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks… a subsidiary of Dassault Systèmes4
- A competitor to CAD programs such as Pro/ENGINEER, I-DEAS, Unigraphics, and CATIA4
- A parasolid-based solid modeler4
SolidWorks Flow Simulation
- A tool that tests fluid-flow simulation and thermal analysis so designers can conduct tests on virtual prototypes4
SolidWorks MoldBase
- A catalog of standard mold base assemblies and components4
SolidWorks Motion
- A virtual prototyping tool that provides motion simulation capabilities to ensure designs function properly4
SolidWorks Simulation
- A design validation tool that shows engineers how their designs will behave as physical objects4
SolidWorks Simulation Premium
- A design validation tool that caters to designers without engineering background4
SolidWorks Sustainability
- A product that measures the environmental impact of designs while they are modeled in SolidWorks4
SolidWorks Toolbox
- A library of parts that uses “Smart Part” Technology to automatically select fasteners and assemble them in the desired sequence4
SolidWorks Utilities
- Software that lets designers find differences between two versions of the same part, or locate, modify, and suppress features within a model4
SolidWorks Viewer
- A free plug-in for viewing SolidWorks parts, assemblies, and drawings4
SolidWorks Workgroup PDM
- A PDM tool that allows SolidWorks users operating in teams of 10 members or less to work on designs concurrently4
Sub-forum
- A great place to share your experiences and do your Q&A with other users28
Technical drawing or Drafting
- The academic discipline of creating standardized technical drawings by architects, interior designers, drafters, design engineers, and related professionals16
- Integral communication of technical or engineering drawings and is the industrial arts sub-discipline that underlies all involved technical endeavors16
- Means of clearly and concisely communicating all of the information necessary to transform an idea or a concept into reality22
- Drawing plan, rendered to scale, used to communicate direction and specifics to a group of people creating something23
- Formal and precise way of communicating information about the shape, size, features and precision of physical objects24
- Universal language of engineering used in the design process for solving problems, quickly and accurately visualizing objects, and conducting analysis24
- A graphical representation of objects and structures24
- Expression of bodies by lines24
- Skill, a vocation25
Tessellation
- The process of transforming representations of objects, such as transforming the middle point coordinate of a sphere and a point on its circumference into a polygon representation of a sphere2
- A significant contributing factor to the resulting aesthetic and visual quality of the finished work2


References:
1Sunith. “Transforming a 2D Drawing to 3D CAD Data.” Online posting. 10 June 2009. CAD Professor. 19 July 2010 <http://www.cadprofessor.in/2009/06/transforming-a-2d-drawing-to-3d-cad-data/>.
2“3D modeling.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_modeling>.
3“3D computer graphics.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_computer_graphics>.
4“SolidWorks.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SolidWorks>.
5“3D rendering.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_rendering>.
6“3D printing.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_Printing>.
7“Procedural modeling.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_modeling>.
8“Polygonal modeling.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygonal_modeling>.
9“3D computer graphics software.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_modeler>.
10“Computer animation.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_animation>.
11“Skeletal animation.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_animation>.
12“Computer-aided design.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAD>.
13“Pro/ENGINEER.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro/ENGINEER>.
14“Solid modeling.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_modeling>.
15“Assembly modelling.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_modelling>.
16“Technical drawing.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 19 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_drawing>.
17Dillip Kumar Barik. “Mechanical Cad Design and 3D Modeling Services.” Online posting. 22 Mar 2010. ArticlesBase. 20 July 2010 <http://www.articlesbase.com/software-articles/mechanical-cad-design-and-3d-modeling-services-2026899.html>.
18cadserviceireland. “Affordable CAD Services and CAD 3D Modeling Services.” Online posting. 1 Mar 2009. A1Articles. 20 July 2010 <http://www.a1articles.com/article_801232_15.html>.
19Ralph Grabowski. “TIPS: Macros.” Online posting. 5 Feb 2004. WorldCAD Access. 26 July 2010 <http://worldcadaccess.typepad.com/blog/2004/02/tips_macros.html>.
20Srivastava, Rahul. Customization of CAD Modeling Software using Parametric Macros for Design of Machinable Artistic Surface Patterns. Patiala: Thapar University, 2009. 27 July 2010 <http://dspace.thapar.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/10266/1033/1/RAHUL+SRIVASTAVA+80781021-+2009.pdf>.
21Schoonmaker, Stephen J. The CAD Guidebook: A Basic Manual for Understanding and Improving Computer-Aided Design. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003.
22Goetsch, David L., et al. Technical Drawing. 5th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, c2005.
23“Definition of Technical Drawing.” YourDictionary. 20 July 2010. 3 Aug 2010. <http://www.yourdictionary.com/dictionary-articles/Definition-of-Technical-Drawing.html>.
24G. Gülsev Uyar Aldas. “JFM210 Technical Drawing and Computer Application Lecture Notes (First Part).” Scribd. 26 Nov 2008. 3 Aug 2010 <http://www.scribd.com/doc/8455804/Technical-Drawing>.
25Lee, Xah. “What Is Technical Drawing, Descriptive Geometry, Projective Geometry, Linear Algebra.” XahLee.org. 2 Aug 2010. 3 Aug 2010 <http://xahlee.org/3d/tech_drawing.html>.
26“Electronic design automation.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 26 July 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_design_automation>.
27Kay. “25 (Free) 3D Modeling Applications You Should Not Miss.” Online posting. 14 Aug 2010. Hongkiat.com. 16 Aug 2010 <http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/25-free-3d-modelling-applications-you-should-not-miss/>.
28Saikat Basu. “Easily Learn 3D Modeling with 3DVIA Shape.” Online posting. 15 June 2010. MakeUseOf. 23 Aug 2010 <http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/3d-modeling-skills-easy-3dvia-shape/>.
29Baxter, Mike. Product Design: Practical Methods for the Systematic Development of New Products. Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thornes, 2002.
30“Product design.” Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation. 6 Aug 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_design>.
31“Become a Professional in Animation.” Design Training. 30 Nov 2010. 20 Dec 2010 <http://www.design-training.com/computer-animation/>.
32Hopson, Ben. “Kinetic Design and the Animation of Products.” Online posting. 1 Mar 2009. Core77. 20 Dec 2010 <http://www.core77.com/blog/featured_items/kinetic_design_and_the_animation_of_products_by_ben_hopson_12642.asp>.

 

Blog - 3D Modeling

Books on 3D Modeling

  • Franson, David. 2D Artwork and 3D Modeling for Game Artists. Indianapolis, IN: Premier Press, 2002.
  • Sarris, Nikos, and Michael G. Strintzis, eds. 3D modeling and Animation: Synthesis and Analysis Techniques for the Human Body. Hershey: IRM Press, c2005.
  • Wilson, John E. 3D modeling in AutoCAD: Creating and Using 3D Models in AutoCAD 2000, 2000i, 2002. 2nd ed. Lawrence: CMP Books, c2002.
  • Wilson, John. AutoCAD 2000: 3D modeling: A Visual Approach. Albany, NY: Autodesk Press, c2000.
  • Wilson, John, and Alan J. Kalameja. AutoCAD 2002: 3D Modeling, a Visual Approach. Albany, NY: Thomson Learning, c2002.
  • Kalameja, Alan J. AutoCAD 2004: 3D Modeling, a Visual Approach. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, c2004.
  • Ambrosius, Lee. AutoCAD 2008 3D Modeling Workbook for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, c2007.
  • Curry, Zane D. AutoCAD 2009 for Interior Design: a 3D Modeling Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.
  • Hamad, Munir M. AutoCAD 2010 3D Modeling Essentials. 1st ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2010.
  • Hamad, Munir. AutoCAD 2011 3D Modeling Essentials. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2010.
  • Till, Steven, and James O’Connell. Exploring 3D modeling with 3DS Max 7. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2005.
  • Till, Steven, and James O’Connell. Exploring 3D Modeling with 3DS Max 8. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2007.
  • Alley, Tony. Exploring 3D Modeling with Cinema 4D R9. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning, c2006.
  • Beckmann, Patricia, and Scott Wells. Exploring 3D Modeling with Maya 6. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2004.
  • Beckmann, Patricia, and Scott Wells. Exploring 3D Modeling with Maya 7. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, c2007.
  • First IEEE International Workshop on Higher-Level Knowledge in 3D Modeling and Motion Analysis (HLK 2003): October 17, 2003, Nice, France: Proceedings. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, c2003.
  • Mortenson, Michael E. Geometric Transformations for 3D Modeling. 2nd ed. New York: Industrial Press, c2007.
  • Capizzi, Tom. Inspired 3D Modeling and Texture Mapping. Indianapolis, IN: Premier Press, c2002.
  • Ethier, Stephen J., and Christine A. Ethier. Instant AutoCAD: 3D Model
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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